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Roman and Greek Coins Atica Athen tetradrachm, phillip II, corinthia corinth thasos roman republic l. minucius mark anthony augustus Vespasian Domitian nerva traianio trajan hadrianus hadrian atoninus pius marcus aurelius faustina II lucilla lucius verus commodus gordian III marcus aurelius claudius II gothicus diocletian constantine constantus II Johannes

Constantine the Great AE Follis. 315-316 AD.

OBVS: IMP CONSTANTINVS PF AVG, (different bust than listed in RIC Laureate, cuirassed bust right)

REV: SOLI INVICTO COMITI, Sol standing left with orb and raising right hand, C-S/PARL in ex.

Arles RIC VII 57

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Imperial Rome, Constantine the Great

307 - 337 AD. AE-Follis of 313 AD.

Obverse: IMP. C. FL. VAL. CONSTANTINVS P.F. AVG., his laureate head rt.

Reverse: IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG, Jupiter standing lt., holding Nike and a sceptre, and eagle stands before him, B in rt. field, SMHT in ex. RIC.VI.5.

Heraclea Mint. 4.27g.

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Imperial Rome, Constantine the Great 307 - 337 AD.

AE3 Obv: CONSTANTINVSAVG - Helmeted, cuirassed bust right.
Rev: VIRTVSEXERCIT Exe: TS - Vexillum reading VOT/XX; seated captive on either side. 320  EF with a substantive amount of silvering remaining. RIC VII 75 (Thessalonica)I

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Licinius I

308-324 AD 

Obv: IMP C VAL LICIN LICINIVS P F AVG  Radiate bust right, draped and cuirassed

Rev: IOVI CONS-ERVATORI Jupiter standing left, holding Victory on a globe and scepter, at feet, left, an eagle with wreath in beak, at right, a captive.

Exe: SMN (delta) / "x" over | II (gamma) Nicomedia mint: AD 321-324 = RIC VII, 44

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Licinius I

308-324 AD 

18mm 1.7 g

Obv: IMP C VAL LICIN LICINIVS P F AVG  Laureate head right.

Rev: LICINI AVG, around VO TIS XX

Exe: SA, Arles  = RIC 209

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Galeria Valeria

308 AD  (Augusta) Died 315 AD

Obv: GALVALE-RIAAVG bust right, draped.

Rev: VENERIV-ICTRICI Venus standing facing, head left., right holding up globe, raising drapery over l. shoulder. Є in right field.

SMTS in exergue unlisted in RIC with Є

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Constantius II (Augustus) AE2

Ruled: 337-360 AD


OBVS: DNCONSTANTIVSPFAVG - Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.

REV: FELTEMPREPARATIO - Constantius II standing left, holding labarum (with CROSS instead of chi-rho) and resting hand on shield; two captives to left.

Exergue: *, SMHB

Mint:Heraclea (348-351)References:
RIC 72 (VIII, Heraclea)
Less common with the cross in the labarum.

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Constantius II (Augustus) AE2 .
Ruled: 337-360 AD

Obverse: DN CONSTAN-TIVS PF AVG, pearl-diademed head right


Reverse: VOT XX MVLT XXX in four lines within wreath.
Mintmark SMND.

RIC VIII Nicomedia 49
 

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Contemporary Forgery of Constantine I

Similar to the following style A.D. 334- Sept. 335


Obverse. CONSTAN-TINOPOLIS laureate, helmeted, wearing imperial mantle, holding cross- scepter with a globe.
Reverse. Victory stg. on prow, holding long scepter in r. hand, and resting l. hand on shield.

Information:

Examples of 4th century barbarous coins can be much smaller than even this coin. At 9mm it is not untypical for British imitations which the patina on your coin suggests as well. There were several periods of what Boon coined "epidemic" counterfeiting, as opposed to "endemic" (normal 'background' level) counterfeiting. The epidemics are periods when counterfeiting becomes rampant and the module of the counterfeits declines steadily down to tiny minimi.

The particular epidemic which spawned the copy in question here began with the reform of AD 335 and which produced copies of GLORIA EXERCITUS (both types) and the Constantinian commemoratives (both types) in a steadily declining module down to 7mm / 0.3gm and occasionally even smaller (see Bastien ANSMN 30, pp. 144-145 and for detailed metrology pp. 149-151).

This epidemic continued until the reform of 348 in which all previous bronze coinage was demonetized and the FEL TEMP REPARATIO half-maiorina introduced.)

Julian II Caesar

Caesar: 355-360 AD

OBS: D N IVLIA-NVS NOB C, draped & cuirassed bust right /

REV: FEL TEMP-REPARATIO, soldier spearing fallen horseman who is wearing a Phrygian helmet, reaching backwards, DSISL in ex.

Mint: Siscis RIC 382

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Julian II as Augustus

Ruled: 360-363 AD

*History Note*

Julian II was the last Roman Emperor who was Pagan, as indicated by his many coins with Bulls and other Pagan symbols on them.  Julian however was also in favor on polytheism, in which Christianity was not repressed as much as ALL religions were allowed to continue. Julian also began many reform to try and streamline the administration and government itself.  Julian was also the last emperor who ruled the entire empire for a lengthy period of time (Theodosius I did for a short period in 394 AS).  Sadly Julian died in battle after major victories in Persia, and the armies subsequent withdrawal.

A 18mm Silver Siliqua. 361-363 AD

OBVS: DN FL CL IVLI-ANVS PF AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and bearded bust right /

REV: VOT X MVLT XX within laurel wreath, eagle in badge at top of wreath, SCONST in ex

Mint: Arles RIC 309

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Julian II as Augustus

Ruled: 360-363 AD

AE1, 6.9g, 29mm

OBVS: Head of Julian II right, with DN FL CL IVLIANVS PF AVG around.


REV: Bull standing right, with two stars above, SECVRITAS REIPVB around, and the mint mark

Mint: Thessalonica, 2nd officina

Extremely well struck on both sides with a nice dark patina. Rare mint and coin.

RIC 225

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Julian II as Augustus

Ruled: 360-363 AD

AE1, 6.9g, 29mm

OBVS: Head of Julian II right, with DN FL CL IVLIANVS PF AVG around.


REV: Bull standing right, with two stars above, SECVRITAS REIPVB around, and the mint mark

Mint: Heraclia

Well struck with some die erros. A nice dark patina. Rare mint and coin.

RIC 104

 

Julian II as Augustus

Ruled: 360-363 AD

Silver Siliqua

OBVS: DN CL IVLI-ANVS AVG, pearl-diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right

REV: VOTIS V MVLTIS X in four lines within wreath, TR-palm branch in ex.
 

Mint: Tier (TR)

RSC 157b.

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Julian II as Augustus

Ruled: 360-363 AD

OBVS:  DN FL CL IVLI-ANVS PF AVG, helmeted, pearl-diademed, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield


REV: VOT X MVLT XX in four lines within a wreath with a fancy bow

Mint: Mintmark BSIRM

Extremely well struck on both sides with a nicegreen patina.

RIC 108

Procupius

Ruled/Usurper: 363-366 AD

OBVS: DN PROCO-PIVS PF AVG, pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right

REV: REPARATI-O FEL TEMP, Emperor standing facing, head right, holding labarum and resting left hand on shield.


Mint: Constantinople

Hard emperor to find coins of, but this one has a clear atribution

RIC 6

 

Jovian

Ruled: 363-364 AD

AE3 19mm

OBVS: D N IOVIAN-VS P F AVG - Diademed bust left, draped and
cuirassed.

REV: VOT V MVLT X - Within wreath.
 

Mint: Heraclea

RIC 110

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Valentinian I

Ruled: 364-375 AD


Obverse: DN VALENTINIANVS PF AVG, laureate, draped & cuirassed bust right


Reverse: GLORIA ROMANORVM, emperor dragging captive, holding labarum, BSIRM in ex.

Rated Rare in RIC. Sirmium RIC 4a  364 AD.
 

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Valentinian I

Ruled: 364-375 AD

AE1 27mm 6.9g


Obverse: DN VALENTINIANVS PF AVG, pearl-diademed draped bust right


Reverse:  RESTITVTORI REI PVBLICAE, Emperor standing facing, head right, holding standard and wreath-bearing Victory on globe.

SMNT in ex.(NICOMEDIA)

RIC 15  rare

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Valentinian I

Ruled: 364-375 AD

Obverse: DN VALENTINIANVS PF AVG, laureate, draped & cuirassed bust right


Reverse: GLORIA ROMANORVM, emperor dragging captive, holding labarum, BSIRM in ex.

Rated Rare in RIC. Sirmium RIC 4a 364 AD.
 

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Gratian (Co-Western Emperor)

Ruled: 367-383 AD

Obverse: DNGRATIANVSPFAVG - Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.


Reverse: VOT/XV/MVLT/XX Exe: A/SISC - Wreath, legend within. [RIC emission I is for officina A].

378-383 Siscia mint.

RIC 31a.1 (Siscia) LRBC 1539

**Note: He attempted to assist Emperor Valens at the battle of Adrianople in 378 AD.  Valens however went into battle without the extra troops and was defeated by the Gothic forces.  The whole veteran Eastern legions were destroyed and the Emperor slain.  Many historians consider this a huge turning point in Roman History, as the army never recovered from this and the resulting Barbarian incursions devastated the lands.  In 476 AD the western empire no longer existed.

See here for more detailed information.

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Valens (Eastern Emperor)

Ruled: 364-378 AD
 

Silver Siliqua


Obverse: D N VALEN-S P F AVG - Diademed bust right, draped and cuirassed.

Reverse: VRBS ROMA Roma seated left, holding Victory & sceptre, TRPS in ex..

RIC 27b

Mint: Trier
 

**Note: Valens was killed in battle in 378 AD fighting a large Gothic invasion/rebellion at Adrianople. Nearly 10,000 veteran legionaries from the Persian frontier were killed in the battle.  Considered the worst Roman defeat since the Battle of Canae, Valens pushed ahead into battle without proper scouting and without waiting for the Western Legions who were not far away to help re-enforce the army.  Many historians consider this a huge turning point in Roman History, as the army never recovered from this and the resulting Barbarian incursions devastated the lands.  In 476 AD the western empire no longer existed.

See here for more detailed information.

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Valens (Eastern Emperor)

Ruled: 364-378 AD

Obverse: D N VALEN-S P F AVG - Diademed bust right, draped and cuirassed.

Reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE - Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm.  RIC 10b

Mint: Possibly Heraclea SMHA
 

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Valens (Eastern Emperor)

Ruled: 364-378 AD

Obverse: D N VALEN-S P F AVG - Diademed bust right, draped and cuirassed.

Reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE - Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm.

Exe: (dot) ASISC (2nd Emission) Siscia mint: AD 364-367 = RIC IX, 7b, page 146 - Cohen 37/ 3.58 g.

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Magnus Maximus

Usurper 383-388 AD

AR Siliqua, 1.51 gr, 17.65 mm.

Observe: DN MAG MA-XIMVS PF AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right

Reverse: VIRTVS RO-MANORVM, Roma seated facing on throne, head left, left leg bare, holding globe and inverted spear.

Mintmark AQPS. RIC IX Aquileia
 

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Theodosius I (Eastern Emperor)

379-395 AD 12.5mm AE4

OBVS: DN THEODO-SIVS PF AVG, pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right
 

REV: SALVS REI-PVBLICAE, Victory advancing left, dragging captive (upright)
and carrying trophy on shoulder.

Mintmark SMKB.

RIC 26b (mint mark hard to read, however this style has a similar die to this example, therefore I went with the Cyzicus mint)
 

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Eugenius (Augustus)

Usurper 392-395 AD

*History Note*

Eugenius lost the battle of Frigidus in 394 AD against Theodosius I East army.  The western army had heavy losses which severely affected its ability to stop Barbarian incursions. By 410 AD Rome was sacked by Gothic troops formally in the Roman army as mercenaries.

A clipped 13mm Silver Siliqua.  

OBVS: DN EVGENI-VS PF AVG, bearded, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right /

REV: VRBS-ROMA, Roma, seated left on cuirass, holding Victory on globe and inverted spear with barb.

Lyons Mint
RIC IX 46 (as reverse strike is identical)

However could also be Milan Mint RIC IX 32c due to similar bust style.

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